Afghanistan made its Summer Olympic debut in 1936. Since then the nation missed five editions of the games, including 1952, 1976, 1984, 1992 and 2000. Typically the nation sends athletes to compete in athletics and combat sports. Historically, Afghanistan also competed in field hockey, sending a team to every games it attended from 1936 to 1960. A football team was also sent in 1948. Afghanistan has won two medals at the Olympics, both from taekwondo practitioner Rohullah Nikpai whom won the medals at the 2008 and 2012 games.

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